Know More About Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses cancer
These cancers are the two major types of cancer that develop in the head and neck region of the human beings. These type of cancers belong to the group of tumors called the head and neck cancer. The category of both the cancers is malignant. The paranasal sinuses cancer can originate in any of the sinuses but it is most commonly known to develop in the maxillary sinus. If the cancerous tumor is malignant, it means that it can grow and spread to other parts of the body in an aggressive manner
- The causes of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumor is primarily the rapid division of the normal healthy cells. As per the researches, the modifications in the DNA of the cells could be one of the causes as it leads to the multiplication of cells and the formation of tumors in the body.
- Use of tobacco is one of the major risk factors for the development of head and neck cancers. Tobacco products include cigars, cigarettes, pipes, chewing tobacco, and activities of snuffing. Passive smoking also increases the risk of development of cancer.
- Use of alcohol consumption as well as tobacco increases the risk of developing cancer even more. This type of cancer is found to be occurring two times more in men as compared to women. The increasing age also leads to increased vulnerability to the infections.
- Exposure to several substances like nickel dust, chromium dust, mustard gas, glue fumes, nickel dust, flour dust, etc. also increase the chances of developing the nasal cavity and parasinuses cancer.
- As per the researches, the specialists have linked some of the HPV strains more strongly with certain types of cancers. The human pappilomavirus lowers the immunity of the body and is linked with the development of the cancerous situations.
- Use of marijuana and the exposure to air pollution and specifically the harmful elements present in it lead to increased risk of cancer.
Squamous cell carcinoma
This is the most common type of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer. The squamous cells are the flat cells and form the thin surface layer of the structures present in the head and neck.
These are benign in nature and have wart-like growths that might develop themselves into squamous cell carcinoma.
This type usually refers to a group of various unrelated conditions that lead to the breakdown of the healthy tissues present in the sinuses, nose, and surrounding tissues.
It is the second most common type of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer that originates in the cells lining the glands.
This type of cancer occurs in the nerves that control the sense of smell in human beings. It begins on the roof of the nasal cavity in a structure called the cribriform plate. It is basically a bone located deep in the skull between the eyes and the sinuses.
Signs and Symptoms
- Decreased sense of smell
- Frequent headaches or pain in the sinus region
- Pain or swelling in the face, eyes, or ears
- Pain or numbness in the teeth
- Chronic sinus infections that do not go away with antibiotic treatment
- Frequent runny nose
- A lump on the face, nose, or inside the mouth
- A lump or sore inside the nose that does not heal
- Unexplained weight loss
- Difficulty opening the mouth
- Persistent tearing of the eyes
- Bulging of one of the eyes or loss of vision
- A lump in the neck
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
This is an imaging technique which involves use of radio waves, magnet, and the computer to get in depth pictures of the spinal cord and the brain. To perform this test, a substance called galodinium is injected inside the body through a vein so that it collects around the cancer cells and they are seen clearly in a bright light.
Generally, the specialist performs a biopsy to collect the sample of the cells for analysis but id there is suspected tumor, the doctor can remove it there and then only. A fine needle is guided with the help of a computer inside the affected area and the tumor is removed as safely as possible.
The doctor can suggest Xrays, CT scans, and PET scans. An X ray provides the digital images of the internal organs of the body. The computed tomography imaging use certain magnetic, radioactive fields to produce the images through computers. A specific dye can also be injected into the body during these scans to get better pictures of the body organs.
A bone scan may is performed to see if cancer has spread to the bones. This procedure uses a radioactive tracer to get the images of the inside of the bones. The tracer is injected into the patient’s body therough the vein. The tracer gets collected in the areas of the bone that has been affected and is detected with the help of a special camera. The healthy bone appears lighter to the camera while the ones that have been affected by the areas of injury or infection, like that caused by cancer stand out on the image.
Side effects of the treatment
- Radiotherapy can cause weakness, tiredness, skin soreness, redness or swelling near the affected area. Skin changes can also be observed during this treatment. Radiation therapy can cause problems like soreness, dry mouth, shortness of breath, and throid problems too.
- Chemotherapy can lead to issues like nausea, vomiting, and loss of hairs as well. It can cause decrease red blood cell count too. In the case of long term complications, thus treatment may lead to health problems like lung damage, heart disease, occurrence of other types of cancer, or fertility problems.
- Immunotherapy may also lead to issues like chills, fever, dizziness, weakness, headache, fatigue, pain in joints or muscles, bleeding, swelling of affected area, and several others.
- Surgery leads to issues like increased risk of infections, nausea and vomiting, sore throat, sleeplessness, restlessness, gas, constipation, and often discomfort.
During a Radiation therapy, the doctor uses high energy beams like xrays or the protons to target the cancer cells and destroy them. During the procedure, the patient is made to lie on a platfrom and the machine containing radioactive materials is moved around the body. It reaches out to cancer cells in the body and helps in their destruction. Another method is that a small device is placed inside the body and it keeps on radiating the energy beams to kill the cancer cells.
During the Immunotherapy, the doctor injects certain drugs and medications that can boost the immune system of the body and lead to fighting with the cancer cells. Generally, when the disease has spread to most of the body parts, this technique is administered by the specialists.
This treatment uses certain drugs or chemicals that are injected into the human body. A special dye reaches out to cancer cells present anywhere in the body and kills them instantly. This procedure can be used either individually or in combination with other treatments like surgery. Chemotherapy can be administered in the form of pills or through a vein in fhe arm or both. It can be recommended when the cancer has spread to lymph nodes and other major parts of the body.
The surgery is done to remove the tumors present in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Often, the surrounding healthy tissues called the marhins are also removed. It is also termed excision.
This is a surgery that involves the removal of the hard palate, which is the bony roof of the mouth. Artificial devices that are called prostheses or the flaps of soft tissue with and without bone can be placed to fill gaps from this operation. A maxillectomy is usually done to to treat paranasal sinus cancer.
Craniofacial resection/skull base surgery
This is an extensive surgery for paranasal sinusthat is usually advised for cancer. During this operation, the surgeon removes more tissue than a maxillectomy. The neurosurgeon and a head and neck surgeon should coordinate and must be in communication with each other to perform this surgery.
Why chose Ayurveda?
The field of Ayurveda helps in dealing with the imbalance in the doshas namely Kapa, Vitta, and Kapha. Several diet changes and foods like broccoli and carrot can be beneficial when someone is suffering from cancer. The foods rich in carotene should be consumed so that the levels of anti oxidants are maintained in the body.
According to Ayurveda, the doshas need to be balanced in order to remain free from diseases and fatal infections. There are no side effects attached with the inclusion of Ayurvedic herbs in the treatments. These can be easily used in the processes of allopathic treatments.
The Ayurvedic medicines and the herbal extracts do not have any kind of chemicals in them. These help to remove toxins from the body and purify it completely. Since years, the Ayurvedacharyas used several therapies to treat the individuals with various disorders.